Is hospital-acquired pneumonia different in transplant recipients?

Clin Microbiol Infect 2019 04 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Infectious Diseases Department, Bellvitge University Hospital, IDIBELL, University of Barcelona, Spain; REIPI (Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Disease), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are serious complications in transplant patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence regarding nosocomial pneumonia in transplant recipients, including HAP in non-ventilated patients and VAP, and to identify future directions for improvement.A comprehensive literature search in the PubMed/MEDLINE database was performed. Articles written in English and published between 1990 and November 2018 were included. HAP/VAP in transplant patients usually occurs early post-transplant, particularly during neutropenia in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Bacteria are the leading cause of nosocomial pneumonia for both immunocompetent and transplant recipients, being Gram negative organisms, and especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, highly prevalent. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are of special concern. Pneumonia in the transplant setting may be caused by opportunistic pathogens, and the differential diagnosis needs to be extended to other non-infectious complications. The most relevant opportunistic pathogens are Aspergillus fumigatus, Pneumocystis jirovecii and cytomegalovirus. Nevertheless, they are an exceptional cause of nosocomial pneumonia, and usually occur in severely immunosuppressed patients not receiving antimicrobial prophylaxis. Performing bronchoalveolar lavage may improve the rate of aetiological diagnosis, leading to a change in therapeutic management and improved outcomes. The optimal length of antibiotic therapy for bacterial HAP/VAP has not been well defined, but it should perhaps be longer than in the general population. Mortality associated with HAP/VAP is high. HAP/VAP in transplant patients is frequent and is associated with increased mortality. There is room for improvement in gaining knowledge about the management of HAP/VAP in this population.

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Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1198743X193015
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2019.04.003DOI Listing

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April 2019
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