Ancien professeur en pathologie infectieuse, École nationale vétérinaire, agroalimentaire et de l'alimentation de Nantes-Atlantique, Oniris, Nantes, France.
Risk of zoonoses by animal bites and scratches. The objectives of this study are to identify zoonosis risks related to animal bites and scratches in France. Pet-transmitted zoonoses, as pasteurellosis, cat scratches disease and various specific bacterial infections, are predominant, resulting usually in localized infections or, sometimes, in serious systemic infections (as those caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus) in immunocompromised patients. On the other hand, the rat bite fever due to Strepto bacillus monoliformis is rarely diagnosed in humans. Because the France is a country free from rabies in non-flying mammals, exposure risk is limited to patients in contact with animals (predominantly non-vaccinated dogs or cats) illicitly imported from rabies enzootic areas. But, population may be exposed to infections by lyssaviruses isolated from bats, as European bat lyssaviruses type 1 (EBLV-1) transmitted by serotine bats (happily insectivorous and having little contact with humans), and more seriously in French Guyana, rabies virus transmitted by vampire bats. Lastly, exposure risk to Asian macaque monkeys infected by herpesvirus B present in some zoological parks in France is negligible for general population.
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