Clin Dermatol 2019 Mar - Apr;37(2):119-128. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Dermatology Department, University of CT Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:
Several medical conditions can cause children to present with fever and a maculopapular rash Although some presentations are benign, others may be medical emergencies, which warrant a prompt diagnosis. We review some of the more common causes of fever and maculopapular dermatitirs, rash including infectious processes (roseola; rubeola; rubella; parvovirus B19; hand, foot, and mouth disease; scarlet fever; meningococcemia; Epstein-Barr virus infection), hypersensitivity reactions (exanthematous drug reactions), and vasculitis syndromes (Kawasaki disease). We have included a diagnostic algorithm to facilitate rapid identification of the etiology of the rash and fever. Those conditions that can occur in children but are seen predominantly in adults are discussed in the contribution "Rash with maculopapules and fever in adults" in this issue.