Front Immunol 2019 26;10:557. Epub 2019 Mar 26.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Inflammation Research Network, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by both acute and chronic phase inflammation of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract that affect a large and growing number of people worldwide with little to no effective treatments. This is in part due to the lack of understanding of the disease pathogenesis and also the currently poorly described involvement of other systems such as the lymphatics. During DSS induced colitis, mice also develop a severe inflammation of terminal ileum with many features similar to IBD. As well as inflammation within the ileum we have previously demonstrated lymphatic remodeling within the mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes of DSS-treated mice. The lymphatic remodeling includes lymphangiogenesis, lymphatic vessel dilation and leakiness, as well as cellular infiltration into the surrounding tissue and peripheral draining lymph nodes. Intestinal inflammation was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Mice were treated with TLR4 blocker C34 or Polymyxin-B (PMXB) daily from days 3 to 7 of DSS treatment via I.P. injection, and their therapeutic effects on disease activity and lymphatic function were examined. TLR activity and subsequent effect on lymphangiogenesis, lymphadenopathy, and mesenteric lymph node cellular composition were assessed. DSS Mice treated with TLR4 inhibitor, C34, had a significantly improved disease phenotype characterized by reduced ileal and colonic insult. The change correlated with significant reduction in colonic and mesenteric inflammation, resolved mesenteric lymphangiectasia, and CD103 DC migration similar to that of healthy control. PMXB treatment however did not resolve inflammation within the colon or associated mesenteric lymphatic dysfunction but did however prevent lymphadenopathy within the MLN through alteration of CCL21 gradients and CD103 DC migration. TLR4 appears to mediate several changes within the mesenteric lymphatics, more specifically it is shown to have different outcomes whether stimulation occurs through pathogen derived factors such as LPS or tissue derived DAMPs, a novel phenomenon.