J Virol 2019 Jul 14;93(13). Epub 2019 Jun 14.
ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India
In 2011, ticks were collected from livestock following an outbreak of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Gujarat state, India. CCHF-negative tick pools were passaged for virus isolation, and two virus isolates were obtained, designated Karyana virus (KARYV) and Kundal virus (KUNDV), respectively. Traditional reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) identification of known viruses was unsuccessful, but a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach identified KARYV and KUNDV as viruses in the family, and genera, respectively. Viral genomes were assembled, yielding 10 complete segments of KARYV and 12 nearly complete segments of KUNDV. The VP1 gene of KARYV shared a most recent common ancestor with Wad Medani virus (WMV), strain Ar495, and based on nucleotide identity we demonstrate that it is a novel WMV strain. The VP1 segment of KUNDV shares a common ancestor with Colorado tick fever virus, Eyach virus, Tai Forest reovirus, and Tarumizu tick virus from the genus. Based on VP1, VP6, VP7, and VP12 nucleotide and amino acid identities, KUNDV is proposed to be a new species of Electron microscopy supported the classification of KARYV and KUNDV as reoviruses and identified replication morphology consistent with other orbi- and coltiviruses. The identification of novel tick-borne viruses carried by the CCHF vector is an important step in the characterization of their potential role in human and animal pathogenesis. Ticks and mosquitoes, as well , can transmit viruses in the family. With the help of next-generation sequencing (NGS), previously unreported reoviruses such as equine encephalosis virus, Wad Medani virus (WMV), Kammavanpettai virus (KVPTV), and, with this report, KARYV and KUNDV have been discovered and characterized in India. The isolation of KUNDV and KARYV from , which is a known vector for zoonotic pathogens, such as Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, , , and species, identifies arboviruses with the potential to transmit to humans. Characterization of KUNDV and KARYV isolated from ticks is critical for the development of specific serological and molecular assays that can be used to determine the association of these viruses with disease in humans and livestock.