Obese patients have higher rates of polymicrobial and Gram-negative early periprosthetic joint infections of the hip than non-obese patients.

Authors:
Baukje Dijkstra
Baukje Dijkstra
Groningen | Netherlands
Greetje A Kampinga
Greetje A Kampinga
University Medical Center Groningen
Netherlands
Glen Mithoe
Glen Mithoe
The Laboratory for Infectious Diseases

PLoS One 2019 8;14(4):e0215035. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Obese patients are more likely to develop periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after primary total joint arthroplasty. This study compared the clinical and microbiological characteristics of non-obese, obese and severely obese patients with early PJI, in order to ultimately optimize antibiotic prophylaxis and other prevention measures for this specific patient category.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with early PJI of the hip and knee treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) between 2006 and 2016 in three Dutch hospitals. Only patients with primary arthroplasties indicated for osteoarthritis were included. Early PJI was defined as an infection that developed within 90 days after index surgery. Obesity was defined as a BMI ?30kg/m2 and severe obesity as a BMI ?35kg/m2.

Results: A total of 237 patients were analyzed, including 64 obese patients (27.0%) and 62 severely obese patients (26.2%). Compared with non-obese patients, obese patients had higher rates of polymicrobial infections (60.3% vs 33.3%, p<0.001) with more often involvement of Enterococcus species (27.0% vs 11.7%, p = 0.003). Moreover, severely obese patients had more Gram-negative infections, especially with Proteus species (12.9% vs 2.3%, p = 0.001). These results were only found in periprosthetic hip infections, comprising Gram-negative PJIs in 34.2% of severely obese patients compared with 24.7% in obese patients and 12.7% in non-obese patients (p = 0.018).

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that obese patients with early periprosthetic hip infections have higher rates of polymicrobial infections with enterococci and Gram-negative rods, which stresses the importance of improving preventive strategies in this specific patient category, by adjusting antibiotic prophylaxis regimens, improving disinfection strategies and optimizing postoperative wound care.

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Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215035PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453483PMC

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April 2019
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