BMC Res Notes 2019 Apr 5;12(1):211. Epub 2019 Apr 5.
Department of Microbiology Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Objective: Preschool age children (PSAC) are excluded from community based praziquantel treatment programs mainly due to paucity of evidence on the magnitude of schistosomiasis, efficacy and safety of this treatment in PSAC. The aim of this study is to assess Schistosoma mansoni infection rate and evaluate response to praziquantel in PSAC. A facility based longitudinal study was employed from April to June 2016 at Erer Health Center, Eastern Ethiopia. Stool sample was examined for schistosomiasis in 236 PSAC and repeated after 4 weeks post-treatment in positive individuals. Treatment outcomes were recorded and interpreted.
Results: Out of the 236 study participants, 59 (25%) were infected with S. mansoni. Praziquantel treatment (40 mg/kg) resulted in 96.4% cure rate and 99.4% egg reduction rate. Children of 3-5 year old were significantly affected with S. mansoni infection. Nausea and fatigue were common mild adverse events within 4 h of treatment however moderate and severe adverse events and allergic reactions were not observed. In conclusion, praziquantel at 40 mg/kg, the dose utilized in standard care for school age children, is tolerable and efficacious in the treatment of S. mansoni infection in PSAC, which calls for the healthcare system to provide appropriate service for this population.