Šikl's Department of Pathology, Charles University in Prague, The Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital in Pilsen, Alej Svobody 80, 304 60 Pilsen, Czech Republic; Bioptická laboratoř s.r.o., Mikulášske nám. 4, 326 00 Pilsen.
Myositis ossificans (MO) and fibro-osseous pseudotumor of digits (FOPD) are localized, self-limiting bone-producing pseudosarcomatous lesions characterized by nodular fasciitis-like proliferation and osteoid and immature woven bone production, which may eventually develop into more mature lamellar bone. Traditionally, MO and FOPD were thought to be of reactive, non-neoplastic nature. USP6 gene rearrangement was recently reported as a consistent finding in MO and FOPD, thus expanding the spectrum of transient, USP6-rearranged neoplasms. COL1A1 was described as the fusion partner of USP6 in a subset of MO cases, but the fusion partners of USP6-rearranged FOPD have not been uncovered so far. Initially, we carefully reviewed all 27 cases of MO/FOPD from our archives, documenting the remarkable morphological overlap between both lesions. Sixteen cases were seen in consultation, and our review was requested to rule in or rule out tentative diagnoses by referring pathologists. Malignant diagnosis (osteosarcoma) was suggested by the submitting pathologists in 3 cases, whereas 7 cases were sent by the referring pathologists to "rule out sarcoma." In the following step, using next-generation sequencing, we confirmed the COL1A1-USP6 rearrangement in 5/7 cases of MO and found the same abnormality in 4/5 of FOPD. Overall, 9 of the 12 analyzable cases (75%) of MO and FOPD harbored this gene fusion. The presence of COL1A1-USP6 gene rearrangement in MO/FOPD links these lesions to other USP6-driven tumors and represents a very useful supportive marker, which may help to avoid overdiagnosis of MO/FOPD as a sarcoma.
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