Parasit Vectors 2019 Apr 2;12(1):151. Epub 2019 Apr 2.
INTERTRYP, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
Background: A number of reports have demonstrated the role of insect bacterial flora on their host's physiology and metabolism. The tsetse host and vector of trypanosomes responsible for human sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT) and nagana in animals (African animal trypanosomiasis, AAT) carry bacteria that influence its diet and immune processes. However, the mechanisms involved in these processes remain poorly documented. This underscores the need for increased research into the bacterial flora composition and structure of tsetse flies. The aim of this study was to identify the diversity and relative abundance of bacterial genera in Glossina palpalis palpalis flies collected in two trypanosomiasis foci in Cameroon.
Methods: Samples of G. p. palpalis which were either negative or naturally trypanosome-positive were collected in two foci located in southern Cameroon (Campo and Bipindi). Using the V3V4 and V4 variable regions of the small subunit of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we analyzed the respective bacteriome of the flies' midguts.
Results: We identified ten bacterial genera. In addition, we observed that the relative abundance of the obligate endosymbiont Wigglesworthia was highly prominent (around 99%), regardless of the analyzed region. The remaining genera represented approximately 1% of the bacterial flora, and were composed of Salmonella, Spiroplasma, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, Acidibacter, Tsukamurella, Serratia, Kluyvera and an unidentified bacterium. The genus Sodalis was present but with a very low abundance. Globally, no statistically significant difference was found between the bacterial compositions of flies from the two foci, and between positive and trypanosome-negative flies. However, Salmonella and Serratia were only described in trypanosome-negative flies, suggesting a potential role for these two bacteria in fly refractoriness to trypanosome infection. In addition, our study showed the V4 region of the small subunit of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was more efficient than the V3V4 region at describing the totality of the bacterial diversity.
Conclusions: A very large diversity of bacteria was identified with the discovering of species reported to secrete anti-parasitic compounds or to modulate vector competence in other insects. For future studies, the analyses should be enlarged with larger sampling including foci from several countries.