Agrotech, Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus, Denmark.
Surface charge engineering has received considerable interest from the scientific and industrial community in the last few decades. Although it was previously hypothesized that the surface charge-charge interactions were not a fundamental force to determine protein folding and stability, many studies today show that surface charge plays a key role determining protein structure and activity. This review aims to (a) highlight the value of surface charged engineering of proteins to improve enzyme stability and activity in aqueous media and in the presence of ionic liquids (ILs) and organic solvents, (b) describe the existing approaches (genetic engineering or chemical modifications) for surface charged engineering, and (c) demonstrate the applicability of these surface charged enzymes in biocatalysis. The review provides a new foundation for the scientific and research community to exploit the surface engineering of protein concept for the development of new enzymes that are more active and stable in the presence of ILs and organic solvents, thereby offering new opportunities for industrial biocatalysis. Furthermore, this review is a useful tool for researchers to decide the best available technology to improve their enzyme system/process.
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