Biores Open Access 2019 25;8(1):59-64. Epub 2019 Mar 25.
Department of Community Health Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
The contribution of pregnancy interval after gestational diabetes (GDM) to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) onset is a poorly understood but potentially modifiable factor for T2DM prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of GDM recurrence and/or delivery interval on follow-up care and T2DM onset in a sample of continuously insured women with a term livebirth within 3 years of a GDM-affected delivery. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort of 12,622 women with GDM, 2006-2012, drawn from a national administrative data system (OptumLabs Data Warehouse). We followed 1091 women with GDM who had a subsequent delivery within 3 years of their index delivery. GDM recurred in 49.3% of subsequent pregnancies regardless of the interval to the next conception. Recurrence tripled the odds of early T2DM onset within 3 years of the second delivery. Women with GDM recurrence had greater likelihood of glucose testing in that 3-year interval, but not transition to primary care for continued monitoring, as required by both American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines. In multivariable analysis, we found a trend toward increased likelihood of T2DM onset for short interpregnancy intervals (≤1 year vs. 3 year, 0.08). Pregnancy interval may play a previously unrecognized role in progression to T2DM. T2DM onset after GDM can be prevented or mitigated, but many women in even this insured sample did not receive recommended follow-up monitoring and preventive care, even after a GDM recurrence. The postpartum visit may be an ideal time to inform patients about T2DM prevention opportunities, and discuss potential benefits of optimal spacing of future pregnancies.