FEMS Microbiol Rev 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.
Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, 1100 S. Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, USA.
The symptoms of human adenovirus infections are generally mild and self-limiting. However, these infections have been gaining importance in recent years because of a growing number of immunocompromised patients. Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients are subjected to severe immunosuppressive regimes and cannot efficaciously eliminate virus infections. In these patients, adenovirus infections can develop into deadly multi-organ disseminated disease. Presently, in the absence of approved therapies, physicians rely on drugs developed for other purposes to treat adenovirus infections. As there is a need for anti-adenoviral therapies, researchers have been developing new agents and repurposing existing ones to treat adenovirus infections. There are several small molecule drugs that are being tested for their efficacy against human adenoviruses; some of these have reached clinical trials, while others are still in the preclinical phase. Besides these compounds, research on immunotherapy against adenoviral infection has made significant progress, promising another modality for treatment. The availability of an animal model confirmed the activity of some drugs already in clinical use while proving that others are inactive. This led to the identification of several lead compounds that await further development. In the present article, we review the current status of anti-adenoviral therapies and their advancement by in vivo studies in the Syrian hamster model.