J Leukoc Biol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.
Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
Amoebiasis is an infection of global importance, caused by the eukaryotic parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Pathogenic E. histolytica is associated worldwide with over a million cases of amoebic dysentery, colitis, and amoebic liver abscess. In contrast, the nonpathogenic Entamoeba dispar does not cause these diseases, although it is commonly found in the same areas as pathogenic amoeba. Entamoeba histolytica infection is usually associated with infiltrating neutrophils. These neutrophils appear to play a defensive role against this parasite, by mechanisms not completely understood. Recently, our group reported that neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) are produced in response to E. histolytica trophozoites. But, there is no information on whether nonpathogenic E. dispar can also induce NET formation. In this report, we explored the possibility that E. dispar leads to NET formation. Neutrophils were stimulated by E. histolytica trophozoites or by E. dispar trophozoites, and NET formation was assessed by video microscopy. NET induced by E. histolytica were important for trapping and killing amoebas. In contrast, E. dispar did not induce NET formation in any condition. Also E. dispar did not induce neutrophil degranulation or reactive oxygen species production. In addition, E. histolytica-induced NET formation required alive amoebas and it was inhibited by galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, and lactose. These data show that only alive pathogenic E. histolytica activates neutrophils to produce NET, and suggest that recognition of the parasite involves a carbohydrate with an axial HO- group at carbon 4 of a hexose.