Growth factor sustained delivery from poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid microcarriers and its mass transfer modeling by finite element in a dynamic and static three-dimensional environment bioengineered with stem cells.

Authors:
Bruno Bisceglia
Bruno Bisceglia
University of Salerno Via Ponte Don Melillo
Italy
Giovanni Valdre
Giovanni Valdre
Kaunas University of Technology
Emanuele Giordano
Emanuele Giordano
University of Bologna
Italy
Ernesto Reverchon
Ernesto Reverchon
University of Salerno
Italy
Nicola Maffulli
Nicola Maffulli
University of Salerno
United Kingdom
Giovanna Della Porta
Giovanna Della Porta
University of Bologna
Italy

Biotechnol Bioeng 2019 Jul 8;116(7):1777-1794. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano, SA, Italy.

Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microcarriers (0.8 ± 0.2 μm) have been fabricated with a load of 20 μg/g by an emulsion-based-proprietary technology to sustained deliver human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2), a growth factor largely used for osteogenic induction. hBMP2 release profile, measured in vitro, showed a moderate "burst" release of 20% of the load in first 3 days, followed by a sustained release of 3% of the load along the following 21 days. PLGA microbeads loaded with fluorescent marker (8 mg/g ) and hydroxyapatite (30 mg/g ) were also fabricated and successfully dispersed within three-dimensional (3D) alginate scaffold (Ca-alginate 2% wt/wt) in a range between 50 and 200 mg/cm ; the presence of microcarriers within the scaffold induced a variation of its stiffness between 0.03 and 0.06 MPa; whereas the scaffold surface area was monitored always in the range of 190-200 m /g. Uniform microcarriers dispersion was obtained up to 200 mg/cm ; higher loading values in the 3D scaffold produced large aggregates. The release data and the surface area were, then, used to simulate by finite element modeling the hBMP2 mass transfer within the 3D hydrogel bioengineered with stem cells, in dynamic and static cultivations. The simulation was developed with COMSOL Multiphysics® giving a good representation of hBMP2 mass balances along microbeads (bulk eroded) and on cell surface (cell binding). hBMP2 degradation rate was also taken into account in the simulations. hBMP2 concentration of 20 ng/cm was set as a target because it has been described as the minimum effective value for stem cells stimulation versus the osteogenic phenotype. The sensitivity analysis suggested the best microbeads/cells ratio in the 3D microenvironment, along 21 days of cultivations in both static and dynamic cultivation (perfusion) conditions. The simulated formulation was so assembled experimentally using human mesenchymal stem cells and an improved scaffold stiffness up to 0.09 MPa (n = 3; p ≤ 0.01) was monitored after 21 days of cultivation; moreover a uniform extracellular matrix deposition within the 3D system was detected by Von Kossa staining, especially in dynamic conditions. The results indicated that the described tool can be useful for the design of 3D bioengineered microarchitecture by quantitative understanding.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.26975DOI Listing
July 2019
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