Mol Genet Genomics 2019 Aug 23;294(4):861-873. Epub 2019 Mar 23.
Department of Pathogen Biology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Jiangning District, Nanjing, 211166, People's Republic of China.
Culex pipiens pallens is an important vector that transmits Bancroftian filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases that pose a serious threat to human health. Extensive and improper use of insecticides has caused insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, which has become an important obstacle to the control of mosquito-borne diseases. It is crucial to investigate the underlying mechanism of insecticide resistance. The aims of this study were to identify genes involved in insecticide resistance based on the resistance phenotype, gene expression profile and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to screen for major genes controlling insecticide resistance. Using a combination of SNP and transcriptome data, gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) were studied in deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes. The most differentially expressed pathway in the resistant group was identified, and a regulatory network was built using these SNPs and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in this pathway. The major candidate genes involved in the control of insecticide resistance were analyzed by qPCR, siRNA microinjection and CDC bottle bioassays. A total of 85 DEGs that encoded putative detoxification enzymes (including 61 P450s) were identified in this pathway. The resistance regulatory network was built using SNPs, and these metabolic genes, and a major gene, CYP9AL1, were identified. The functional role of CYP9AL1 in insecticide resistance was confirmed by siRNA microinjection and CDC bottle bioassays. Using the eQTL approach, we identified important genes in pyrethroid resistance that may aid in understanding the mechanism underlying insecticide resistance and in targeting new measures for resistance monitoring and management.
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