Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2019 Jun 21;1867(6):586-594. Epub 2019 Mar 21.
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran, Iran.
Although there is a high sequence similarity between mammalian and fish hemoglobin (Hb), the oxidation and heme loss rates can vary greatly between them such that fish Hbs oxidise much more rapidly than mammalian Hbs. There is to date no sequence or structural data for any sturgeon Hb to reveal the level of autoxidation in these fish. In this study, novel high resolution X-ray sequences and crystal structures of methemoglobin (Met-Hb) from two sturgeon fish including Persian sturgeon (Acipenser percisus) and Starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) belonging to the Caspian sea has been determined. A comprehensive sequence and structure comparison between these sturgeon Met-Hbs and a number of non-sturgeon and normal and sickle cell anaemia human Hb in varying heme states has been carried out highlighting (i) the structural variability in the heme propionate groups; (ii) the existence of certain residues or their displacement and shift in the heme pocket allowing entry of water molecules into the heme pocket; (iii) the importance of the number of water molecules in the heme pocket; (iv) the hydrogen bonding between oxygens of A and D propionate groups and that of waters in the heme pocket; and (v) the role of heme binding waters causing oxidative stress and heme autoxidation.