Clin Transplant 2019 Apr 29:e13546. Epub 2019 Apr 29.
Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.
These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of tissue and blood protozoal infections in the pre- and post-transplant period. Significant new developments in the field have made it necessary to divide the previous single guideline published in 2013 into two sections, with the intestinal parasites separated from this guideline devoted to tissue and blood protozoa. The current update reflects the increased focus on donor screening and risk-based recipient monitoring for parasitic infections. Increased donor testing has led to new recommendations for recipient management of Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. Molecular diagnostics have impacted the field, with access to rapid diagnostic testing for malaria and polymerase chain reaction testing for Leishmania. Changes in Babesia treatment regimens in the immunocompromised host are outlined. The risk of donor transmission of free-living amebae infection is reviewed. Changing immigration patterns and the expansion of transplant medicine in developing countries has contributed to the recognition of parasitic infections as an important threat to transplant outcomes. Medications such as benznidazole and miltefosine are now available to US prescribers as access to treatment of tissue and blood protozoa is increasingly prioritized.