Acta Trop 2019 Jun 18;194:106-122. Epub 2019 Mar 18.
Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, UK.
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are the most significant arthropods of medical importance because of the burden of diseases, such as malaria, encephalitis and filariasis, which are caused by pathogens and parasites they transmit to humans. In 2007, the most recently published checklist of Iranian mosquitoes included 64 species representing seven genera. Public databases were searched to the end of August 2018 for publications concerning the diseases in Iran caused by mosquito-borne pathogens. Pertinent information was extracted and analyzed, and the checklist of Iranian mosquitoes was updated. Six arboviral diseases, two bacterial diseases, four helminthic diseases and two protozoal diseases occur in Iran. The agents of these diseases are biologically or mechanically known or assumed to be transmitted by mosquitoes. The updated checklist of Iranian mosquitoes includes 69 species representing seven or 11 genera depending on the generic classification of aedines. There is no published information about the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of the causal agents of avian malaria, avian pox, bovine ephemeral fever, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, Sindbis fever, Deraiophoronema evansi infection, lymphatic filariasis, anthrax and tularemia in Iran. There is just one imported case of lymphatic filariasis, which is not endemic in the country. It seems arthropods do not play an important role in the epidemiology of anthrax and ixodid ticks are the main vectors of the tularemia bacterium. In view of the recent finding of only a few adults and larvae of Aedes albopictus in southeastern Iran and the absence of Ae. aegypti, it is not possible to infer the indigenous transmission of the dengue fever virus in Iran. Considering the importance of mosquito-borne diseases in the country, it is necessary to improve vector and vector-borne disease surveillance in order to apply the best integrated vector management interventions as a part of the One Health concept.