Vector-borne transmission and evolution of Zika virus.

Authors:
Magdalena Rodriguez
Magdalena Rodriguez
Center for Research
Chicago | United States
Juan A Bisset
Juan A Bisset
Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí
Havana | Cuba
Scott C Weaver
Scott C Weaver
University of Texas Medical Branch
United States
Nikos Vasilakis
Nikos Vasilakis
University of Texas Medical Branch
United States
Anubis Vega-Rua
Anubis Vega-Rua
France Université Pierre et Marie Curie
France

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 04 18;3(4):561-569. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Vector Control Research, Unit Transmission Reservoir and Pathogen Diversity, Institute Pasteur of Guadeloupe, Les Abymes, Guadeloupe, France.

Zika virus (ZIKV), discovered in the Zika Forest of Uganda in 1947, is a mosquito-borne flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue and West Nile viruses. From its discovery until 2007, only sporadic ZIKV cases were reported, with mild clinical manifestations in patients. Therefore, little attention was given to this virus before epidemics in the South Pacific and the Americas that began in 2013. Despite a growing number of ZIKV studies in the past three years, many aspects of the virus remain poorly characterized, particularly the spectrum of species involved in its transmission cycles. Here, we review the mosquito and vertebrate host species potentially involved in ZIKV vector-borne transmission worldwide. We also provide an evidence-supported analysis regarding the possibility of ZIKV spillback from an urban cycle to a zoonotic cycle outside Africa, and we review hypotheses regarding recent emergence and evolution of ZIKV. Finally, we identify critical remaining gaps in the current knowledge of ZIKV vector-borne transmission.

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April 2019
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