Dent Mater 2019 Jun 13;35(6):847-861. Epub 2019 Mar 13.
Department of Advanced Oral Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address:
Objective: The objectives of this studywere to: (1) develop a novel bioactive nanocomposite for Class V restorations with subgingival margins to inhibit periodontal pathogens; and (2) investigate if the bioactive nanocomposite could inhibit multi-species periodontal biofilms with a potency as strong as that against single species biofilms.
Methods: Nanocomposite was fabricated using dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). Biofilms with 1, 3, 6 and 9 species of periodontal pathogens were grown on the composites and tested for live/dead staining, colony-forming units (CFU), metabolic activity, and biofilm matrix polysaccharide production.
Results: The bioactive composite reduced protein adsorption by an order of magnitude (p < 0.05) and greatly reduced biofilm viability. It decreased the biofilm CFU by more than 3 orders of magnitude for all four types of periodontal biofilms, compared to control composite. With increasing the biofilm species from 1 to 9, the antibacterial efficacy of DMAHDM composite decreased; the CFU reduction folds decreased from 947 folds to 44 folds. In contrast, the MPC + DMAHDM composite maintained a CFU reduction folds of greater than 3000, showing a similar antibacterial potency from 1 to 9 species in the biofilms (p > 0.1).
Conclusion: Dual agents MPC + DMAHDM achieved the greatest inhibition in biofilm, without decreasing its antibacterial potency when the biofilm species was increased from 1 to 9. A single agent became less effective when the biofilm species was increased from 1 to 9.
Significance: The multifunctional MPC + DMAHDM composite is promising for root caries treatment and Class V restorations with subgingival margins to effectively inhibit multispecies periodontal biofilms, combat periodontitis and protect the periodontium.