Parasit Vectors 2019 Mar 13;12(1):101. Epub 2019 Mar 13.
Department of Protozoology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Ratchawithi, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.
Background: Despite similarities in morphology, gene and protein profiles, Entamoeba histolytica and E. moshkovskii show profound differences in pathogenicity. Entamoeba histolytica infection might result in amoebic dysentery and liver abscess, while E. moshkovskii causes only mild diarrhea. Extensive studies focus on roles of host immune responses to the pathogenic E. histolytica; however, evidence for E. moshkovskii remains scarce.
Methods: To study differences in host-antibody response profiles between E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii, mice were immunized intraperitoneally with different sets of Entamoeba trophozoites as single species, mixed species and combinations.
Results: Mice prime-immunized with E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii combination, followed by individual species, exhibited higher IgG level than the single species immunization. Mice immunized with E. moshkovskii induced significantly higher levels and long-lasting antibody responses than those challenged with E. histolytica alone. Interestingly, E. histolytica-specific anti-sera promoted the cytopathic ability of E. histolytica toward Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells, but showed no effect on cell adhesion. There was no significant effect of immunized sera on cytopathic activity and adhesion of E. moshkovskii toward both CHO and human epithelial human colonic (Caco-2) cell lines. Monoclonal-antibody (mAb) characterization demonstrated that 89% of E. histolytica-specific mAbs produced from mice targeted cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal proteins, whereas 73% of E. moshkovskii-specific mAbs targeted plasma membrane proteins.
Conclusions: The present findings suggest that infection with mixed Entamoeba species or E. moshkovskii effectively induces an antibody response in mice. It also sheds light on roles of host antibody response in the pathogenic difference of E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii trophozoites, and cell surface protein modifications of the amoebic parasites to escape from host immune system.