Curr Opin Virol 2019 Feb 7;34:110-116. Epub 2019 Mar 7.
Viral Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. Electronic address:
The measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine has an outstanding safety record and is highly efficacious. High coverage with MMR has led to the elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome in the US. The biggest challenges to global measles and rubella control and elimination are insufficient vaccination coverage globally and increasing hesitancy. Despite high two dose coverage rates, mumps has made a resurgence in the US and other countries. Mumps outbreaks have occurred primarily in close contact, high-density settings and most cases had received a second dose 10 or more years previously. Waning humoral immunity and antigenic variation of circulating wild-type mumps strains may play a role in the mumps resurgence.