Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2019 04 22;10(3):690-693. Epub 2019 Feb 22.
Laboratório de Diagnóstico em Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, R. Francisco Getúlio Vargas, 1130, Petrópolis, Caxias do Sul, RS, 95070560, Brazil. Electronic address:
Rangeliosis, caused by protozoan Rangelia vitalii, is transmitted by the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. The disease is characterized by hemolytic and hemorrhagic disorder and has been described in dogs and other wild canids. The aim of this study was to compare clinicopathological findings and laboratory results of a Rangelia infection in a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) with those of canine rangeliosis. The zoo of Universidade de Caxias do Sul, received a crab-eating fox with marked jaundice in mucous membranes, dark-colored stools and neurological signs. The animal underwent an ear tip smear examination and blood collection for complete blood counts, serum biochemistry and PCR. Free-living and intraerythrocytic pyriform structures consistent with R. vitalii were found in the blood smear of the ear tip. The erythrogram revealed normocytic normochromic anemia, moderate macrocytosis, polychromasia and metarubricytosis. The leukogram revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and monocytosis, as well as severe thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemistry showed hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and elevated levels of urea and creatinine. The treatment was performed with imidocarb hydrochloride and dexamethasone, however 24 h after initiation of treatment the animal died. Macroscopic examination revealed jaundice, subcutaneous edema, enlarged superficial lymph nodes, splenomegaly, and hemorrhage of internal organs. Histological sections of the cerebellum, lung, pancreas, intestine and heart were consistent with R. vitalii infection of the vascular endothelium. Pathological and hematological findings were similar to those found in infected dogs, with clinical presentation characterized by hemolytic anemia and hemorrhage. The description of this case showed that C. thous does not only serve as reservoir of R. vitalii but may also develop disease.