Rhinovirus-associated acute encephalitis/encephalopathy and cerebellitis.

Authors:
Kyoko Hazama
Kyoko Hazama
Kohnodai Hospital
Japan
Takashi Shiihara
Takashi Shiihara
Yamagata University School of Medicine
Japan
Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi
Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi
Gunma Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences
Japan
Takeshi Matsushige
Takeshi Matsushige
Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine
Japan
Yuri Dowa
Yuri Dowa
Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine
Japan
Mio Watanabe
Mio Watanabe
Gunma Children's Medical Center
Shibukawa | Japan

Brain Dev 2019 Jun 6;41(6):551-554. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Neurology, Gunma Children's Medical Center, 779 Shimohakoda, Hokkitsu-machi, Shibukawa, Gunma 377-8577, Japan.

Background: Rhinovirus is a common respiratory pathogen for children throughout the year; nevertheless, its central nervous system involvement is extremely rare, and only two cases have been reported to date: meningitis and sepsis-like illness.

Patient: A previously healthy 2-year-old Japanese boy developed fever, followed by seizures and lethargy. His cerebrospinal fluid cell count and protein level were slightly increased; brain magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal intensities in the bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei, which were prominent in diffusion-weighted images. After his consciousness disturbance improved, cerebellar dysfunction became apparent. He was treated symptomatically, without steroids or any other immunosuppressants. He almost recovered within a few months; however, cerebellar atrophy became evident on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Using acute specimens, human rhinovirus A was detected in his throat swab and cerebrospinal fluid.

Discussion: Acute cerebellitis, in which cerebellar inflammation is predominant, is occasionally accompanied by cerebral symptoms, such as consciousness disturbance and seizures. As a causative pathogen, rotavirus is the most common; however, rhinovirus-associated acute encephalitis/encephalopathy and concurrent cerebellitis have not been reported before. Further research, using recent molecular techniques to detect various central nervous system pathogens, including rhinovirus, is needed to delineate the underlying pathophysiology.

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Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03877604183052
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.02.014DOI Listing
June 2019
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