An Pediatr (Barc) 2019 Mar 2. Epub 2019 Mar 2.
Sección de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, España.
Introduction: Invasive group A streptococcal disease (iGASD) is a serious infection in children. Several studies have shown an increased incidence in the past years.
Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and outcome of iGASD in children, and to determine changes in incidence or severity.
Material And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on children≤16 years evaluated in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Madrid, and diagnosed with iGASD (June 2005-July 2013). An analysis was made of the demographics, symptomatology, microbiology, and treatment. The changes throughout the period studied were evaluated, as well as parameters associated with disease severity.
Results: The study included a total of 55 children with iGASD, with 33 (60%) females, and a median age of 48.5 (20.5-88.9) months. The most frequent clinical syndromes were cellulitis/subcutaneous abscess (21.8%), ENT abscess (20%), pneumonia (16.4%), osteoarticular infection (16.4%), and mastoiditis (12.7%). The incidence of iGASD (cases/10 emergencies/year) increased from 5.6 (4.2-7.2) between June 2005-May 2009 to 18.9 (15.1-26) between June 2009-May 2013; P=.057. Surgery and admission to PICU was required by 35 (63.6%) and 10 (18.2%) patients, respectively. Children in PICU were younger (26.5 vs 52.6 months, P=.116), had a higher C-reactive protein (24.5 vs 10.7mg/dl, P<.001) and higher frequency of pneumonia (60 vs 7%, P<.001). In the multivariate analysis, only C-reactive protein was a risk factor for admission to PICU (OR: 1.14 [1.004-1.286], P=.04). There were no sequelae.
Conclusions: An increased incidence of iGASD was observed in the children in this study. Lower age, pneumonia, and higher C-reactive protein were associated with disease severity in this series.