Background: In the developed countries, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Little is known about the epidemiological and geographical distribution of uveal melanoma in Canada.Methods: To determine the incidence patterns and geographical distribution of uveal melanoma cases in Canada, we conducted the first comprehensive, population-based national study of this malignancy across all Canadian provinces and territories during 1992-2010 years. We examined two independent population-based registries: the Canadian Cancer Registry and Le Registre Québécois du Cancer using corresponding International Classification of Diseases for Oncology-3rd edition codes for all histological subtypes of uveal melanoma.Results: We report that 2215 patients were diagnosed with uveal melanoma, of which 52.1% were males. The average -annual incidence rate of uveal melanoma in Canada was 3.75 cases per million individuals per year (95% CI 3.60 to 3.91). Overall, we report a steady increase in uveal melanoma incidence with an annual increase of 0.074 cases per million individuals per year. Significant differences in the incidence rates of uveal melanoma between Canadian provinces and territories were noted, where the highest crude incidence was in British Columbia and Saskatchewan with rates of 6.38 and 5.47 cases per million individuals per year, respectively.Conclusions: This work, for the first time, defines the disease burden of uveal melanoma in Canada and highlights important longitudinal, geographical and spatial differences in the distribution of uveal melanoma in Canada.