Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 May 28;98:30-41. Epub 2018 Dec 28.
Department of Advanced Oral Sciences & Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greene Baum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address:
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are promising bioactive additives to fabricate magnetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. To date, there has been no report on osteoinductivity of IONP-incorporated calcium phosphate cement (IONP-CPC) scaffold on stem cells using an exterior static magnetic field (SMF). The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel magnetic IONP-CPC construct for bone tissue engineering, and (2) investigate the effects of IONP-incorporation and SMF application on the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and bone mineral synthesis of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) seeded on IONP-CPC scaffold for the first time. The novel magnetic IONP-CPC under SMF enhanced the cellular performance of hDPSCs, yielding greater alkaline phosphatase activities (about 3-fold), increased expressions of osteogenic marker genes, and more cell-synthesized bone minerals (about 2.5-fold), compared to CPC control and nonmagnetic IONP-CPC. In addition, IONP-CPC induced more active osteogenesis than CPC control in rat mandible defects. These results were consistent with the enhanced cellular performance by magnetic IONP in media under SMF. Moreover, nano-aggregates were detected inside the cells by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Therefore, the enhanced cell performance was attributed to the physical forces generated by the magnetic field together with cell internalization of the released magnetic nanoparticles from IONP-CPC constructs.