Concurrent anemia and stunting in young children: prevalence, dietary and non-dietary associated factors.

Nutr J 2019 Feb 21;18(1):10. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The existing evidence is limited and contradicting on the co-occurrence of anemia and stunting (CAS) at individual level, despite a great overlap in their risk factors. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CAS, and the dietary and non-dietary factors associated with it, among infants and young children in Ethiopia.

Method: We used a nationally representative sample of 2902 children aged 6-23 months from the Ethiopian demographic and health survey, conducted in 2016. The study was cross-sectional in design. Samples were selected by two-stage clustering sampling method. CAS prevalence was estimated by various sociodemographic factors. To identify the dietary and non-dietary factors associated with CAS, we conducted hierarchical logistic regression analyses.

Result: The overall prevalence of CAS was 23.9%. The dietary factors found significantly linked to lower odds of CAS were use of vitamin A supplement [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.06-1.33, P = 0.003], consumption of vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables (AOR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.04-1.27, P = 0.006), meat (AOR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.17-2.05, P = 0.002), legumes (AOR = 1.38, 95%CI = 1.05-1.81, P = 0.021), and meal frequency > 3 (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.04-1.37, P = 0.020). The non-dietary household and child factors found significantly linked to higher odds of CAS were rural residence (AOR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.18-1.41, P < 0.001), low household wealth (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI = 1.53-2.39, P < 0.001), low caregivers' education level (AOR = 2.14, 95%CI = 1.33-3.44, P < 0.001), male sex (AOR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.04-1.50, P = 0.015), age 12-23 months (AOR = 1.65, 95%CI = 1.57-1.73, P < 0.001), history of infection (AOR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.00-1.30, P = 0.048), and small birth size (AOR = 1.99, 95%CI = 1.58-2.51, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Among infants and young children in Ethiopia, there was a concerning high level of CAS, which was associated with various dietary and non-dietary factors. Enhanced public health/nutrition interventions, with due emphasis on the multifactorial nature of CAS, might stand an important consideration to reduce the burden of CAS in Ethiopia and beyond.

Download full-text PDF

Publisher Site Listing
February 2019
322 Reads

Publication Analysis

Top Keywords

dietary non-dietary
factors linked
non-dietary factors
factors associated
young children
prevalence cas
anemia stunting
odds cas
vitamin supplement
analysesresult prevalence
logistic regression
conducted hierarchical
hierarchical logistic
regression analysesresult
cas 239%
dietary factors
lower odds
239% dietary


(Supplied by CrossRef)
Article in Nutr J
B Amare et al.
Nutr J 2012
Article in World Dev
LC Smith et al.
World Dev 2015
Article in Lancet
ZA Bhutta et al.
Lancet 2013
Article in Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
BO Olusanya et al.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2010
Article in Expert Rev Hematol
S Allali et al.
Expert Rev Hematol 2017
Article in Indian J Pediatr
UNICEF et al.
Indian J Pediatr 1991
Article in Lancet
A Lopez et al.
Lancet 2016
Article in Pediatrics
CG Victora et al.
Pediatrics 2010
Article in Sustainable Approaches: A Review of the Causes and Consequences Front Nutr
K Reinhardt et al.
Sustainable Approaches: A Review of the Causes and Consequences Front Nutr 2014
Article in Nutr J
D Gashu et al.
Nutr J 2016

Similar Publications