Executive dysfunction and white matter inflammation continue to be relatively understudied in rodent models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Behavioural inflexibility is an important component of executive dysfunction that can be further categorized as perseverative or regressive, which respectively specify whether maladaptive persistence occurs early or late during a behavioural change. Previous studies of the TgAPP21 rat model of AD (expressing pathogenic hAPP) suggested a potentially spontaneous increase of regressive behavioral inflexibility. In this study, 7-8-month-old male TgAPP21 rats were tested for behavioral flexibility, learning, and memory using an operant conditioning chamber and the Morris Water Maze (MWM). TgAPP21 rats demonstrated a regressive behavioral inflexibility during set shifting in an operant conditioning chamber (regressive errors η = 0.32 and number of errors after criterion η = 0.33). Regressive behavior was also demonstrated in the MWM probe test, wherein TgAPP21 rats significantly increased their swim time in the target quadrant during the last third of the probe test (43% vs 33% in the first 2 thirds of the probe test or the Wt rats' 29%-32%); this behavioral phenotype has not been previously described in the MWM. TgAPP21 demonstrated further impairment of behavioural inflexibility as they committed a greater number of reversal errors in the operant conditioning chamber (η = 0.30). Diffuse microglia activation was increased in the white matter tracts of TgAPP21 (corpus callosum, cingulum, and internal capsule; η = 0.59-0.62), which was found to correlate with the number of reversal errors in the operant conditioning chamber (R = 0.42). As TgAPP21 rats do not spontaneously develop amyloid plaques but have been shown in previous studies to be vulnerable to the development of plaques, these rats demonstrate an important onset of cognitive change and inflammation in the pre-plaque phase of AD. TgAPP21 rats are also an instrumental model for studying the role and mechanism of white matter microglial activation in executive functioning. This is pertinent to clinical research of prodromal AD which has suggested that white matter inflammation may underlie impairment of executive functions such as behavioral flexibility.