J Agric Food Chem 2019 Mar 25;67(9):2490-2499. Epub 2019 Feb 25.
Universidad de Navarra , Facultad de Farmacia y Nutrición, Departamento de Ciencias de la Alimentación y Fisiología , C/Irunlarrea 1 , E-31008 Pamplona , Spain.
The bioactivity of (poly)phenols from a food is an interplay between the cooking methods applied and the interaction of the food with the gastrointestinal tract. The (poly)phenolic profile and biological activity of raw and cooked cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) cladodes following in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation were evaluated. Twenty-seven (poly)phenols were identified and quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS, with piscidic acid being the most abundant. Throughout the colonic fermentation, flavonoids showed more degradation than phenolic acids, and eucomic acid remained the most relevant after 24 h. The catabolite 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was generated after 24 h of fermentation. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and cell cycle analyses were performed in HT29 cells. Cactus colonic fermentates showed higher cell viability (≥80%) in comparison to the control fermentation with no cactus and significantly ( p < 0.05) reduced HO-induced DNA damage in HT29 cells. Results suggest that, although phenolic compounds were degraded during the colonic fermentation, the biological activity is retained in colon cells.