Clin Exp Nephrol 2019 Jun 8;23(6):792-798. Epub 2019 Feb 8.
Nephrology Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
Background: We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of Chinese patients with unilateral renal agenesis.
Methods: We enrolled patients with unilateral renal agenesis diagnosed radiologically at the Department of Nephrology from January 2008 to January 2016. Patients with a solitary kidney due to nephrectomy or renal atrophy due to secondary factors were excluded. Clinical data were recorded and analyzed.
Results: In this study, 118 Chinese patients with unilateral renal agenesis were recruited, and the gender ratio (male/female) was 1.11:1. A total of 14 (11.9%) patients had additional abnormalities, 15 (12.7%) had a family history, and 30 (25.4%) presented with renal insufficiency. Kidney length, serum creatinine level and estimated glomerular filtration rate were significantly different between patients with and without family history (P < 0.05, respectively). Gender showed a significant difference between patients with and without other abnormalities. Kidney length and the incidence of proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, and hyperuricemia were significantly different between patients with and without renal insufficiency. Logistic regression analysis revealed that family history was associated with severe renal failure (OR = 7.11, 95% CI 1.52-33.25).
Conclusion: Renal insufficiency is common in patients with unilateral renal agenesis. Patients with renal insufficiency have shorter kidney lengths and a higher incidence of proteinuria, hypertension, hematuria, and hyperuricemia. Family history is considered a risk factor for severe renal failure.