Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1914:99-128
Skeletal Biology Group, Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, London, UK.
The techniques that are useful for applying mechanical strain to bone and bone cells are now more diverse than described in the second Edition. Their output has also increased substantially and, perhaps most importantly, their significance is now broadly accepted. This growth in the use of methods for applying mechanical strain to bone and its constituent cells and increased awareness of the importance of the mechanical environment in controlling normal bone cell behavior has indeed heralded new therapeutic approaches. We have expanded the text to include additions and modifications made to the straining apparatus and updated the research cited to support this growing role of cell cultures, including co-culture systems and primary cells, tissue engineering, and organ culture models to analyze responses of bone cells to mechanical stimulation. We understand that there are approaches not covered here and appreciate that alternative strategies have their own value and utility.