Dis Markers 2019 2;2019:8418379. Epub 2019 Jan 2.
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Medical University of Lodz, Zeligowskiego 7/9, Lodz, Poland.
Background: Preeclamptic pregnancies often present an intensified inflammatory state associated with the nuclear activity of NFB. NEMO is an essential regulator of nuclear factor kappa B (NFB) in cytoplasmic and nuclear cellular compartments. The aim of the present study is to examine the level and localization of the NEMO protein in preeclamptic and nonpreeclamptic placentas.
Methods: The study includes 97 preeclamptic cases and 88 controls. NEMO distribution was analyzed immunohistochemically. Its localization in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, as well as in total homogenates of placental samples, was studied by western blot and ELISA.
Results: The western blot and ELISA results indicate a significant difference in NEMO concentration in the total and nuclear fractions between preeclamptic and control samples ( < 0.01 and < 0.001, respectively). In the cytoplasmic complement, similar levels of NEMO were found in preeclamptic and control placentas. In addition, immunohistochemical staining revealed that the NEMO protein is mainly localized in the syncytiotrophoblast layer, with controls demonstrating a stronger reaction with NEMO antibodies. This study also shows that the placental level of NEMO depends on the sex of the fetus.
Conclusions: The depletion of the NEMO protein in the cellular compartments of placental samples may activate one of the molecular pathways influencing the development of preeclampsia, especially in pregnancies with a female fetus. A reduction of the NEMO protein in the nuclear fraction of preeclamptic placentas may intensify the inflammatory state characteristic for preeclampsia and increase the level of apoptosis and necrosis within preeclamptic placentas.