Am J Med Genet A 2019 04 4;179(4):542-551. Epub 2019 Feb 4.
Division of Human Genetics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features and intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been observed, with major anomalies seen more frequently in patients with 5q35 deletions than those with point mutations in NSD1. Though endocrine features have rarely been described, transient hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HI) of the neonatal period has been reported as an uncommon presentation of Sotos syndrome. Eight cases of 5q35 deletions and one patient with an intragenic NSD1 mutation with transient HI have been reported. Here, we describe seven individuals with HI caused by NSD1 gene mutations with three having persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. These patients with persistent HI and Sotos syndrome caused by NSD1 mutations, further dispel the hypothesis that HI is due to the deletion of other genes in the deleted 5q35 region. These patients emphasize that NSD1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to cause HI, and suggest that Sotos syndrome should be considered in patients presenting with neonatal HI. Lastly, these patients help extend the phenotypic spectrum of Sotos syndrome to include HI as a significant feature.