Epidemiologic studies have found that elevated insulin levels and chronic hyperglycemia among breast cancer (BC) survivors are associated with poor prognosis; few of these studies have included Hispanic women in whom diabetes is highly prevalent. We examined the associations between circulating fructosamine-a biomarker of hyperglycemia and blood glucose control, self-reported diabetes, and risk of BC-specific and all-cause mortality among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women diagnosed with invasive BC. A total of 399 BC survivors (96 Hispanic, 303 NHW) contributed baseline data and plasma samples. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. After a median follow-up time of 13 years, a total of 134 deaths occurred, of which 56 deaths were from BC. Diabetes was associated with BC-specific (HR, 2.89; 95% CI 1.27-6.60) and all-cause (HR, 2.10; 95% CI 1.24-3.55) mortality. Associations were stronger among women with clinically high fructosamine levels (>285 µmol/L) (BC-specific: HR, 4.25; 95% CI 1.67-10.80; all-cause: HR, 2.32; 95% CI 1.30-4.14) compared to women with normal levels (≤285 µmol/L). In mediation analysis, fructosamine explained 47% of the association between diabetes and all-cause mortality and 41% of BC-specific mortality; the largest attenuation was among Hispanics for all-cause mortality (56%). Our results demonstrate that poor glycemic control explains a large extent of the relationship between diabetes and mortality among women with invasive BC, particularly among Hispanic women. The associations we observed for BC mortality should be confirmed in larger studies of ethnically diverse BC patients.