Oman Med J 2019 Jan;34(1):66-69
Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
A 30-year-old man presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and a rash over his lower limbs (palpable purpura). Evaluation revealed pancytopenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. A subsequent bone marrow examination and serology confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), while the biopsy of skin lesion suggested leukocytoclastic vasculitis. No alternate cause of vasculitis was forthcoming, and the patient was treated with conventional amphotericin B for 14 days after which resolution of symptoms (including the rash) was noted. Cutaneous vasculitis is an extremely rare complication following visceral leishmaniasis with no known cases reported thus far. Hence, a high index of suspicion is warranted in achieving timely diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy.