Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Liaoning Provincial Core Lab of Glycobiology and Glycoengineering, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.
PTX3, a member of the long pentraxin subfamily, associated with innate immunity is indispensable for resistance to some cancer. Gemcitabine, an analog of cytosine arabinoside, has shown restrained benefits because of profound chemoresistance. The PTX3 expression on GEM in human lung cancer cells have not yet been clarified; the present study aimed to show reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediatory PTX3 expression through distinct mechanisms. Whereas ginsenoside Rg3 is a herbal medicine with strong antitumor activity. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis; Rg3 abrogates GEM-induced production of ROS-mediated activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways and inhibits nuclear piling-up of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and HIF-1α. On the basis of time and dose-dependent manner, our data demonstrated that GEM-induced PTX3 expression was dependent on ROS generation as it was abrogated by pretreatment of lung cancer cells with the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Our data demonstrated that PTX3 upregulation by GEM correlated with the time-dependent escalation of NF-κB and HIF-1α in the nucleus resulted from phosphorylation-induced degradation of IκBα, whereas HIF-1α upregulation was NF-κB-dependent. Increase in ROS expression in lung cancer cells on GEM treatment preceded the nuclear accumulation of NF-κB and HIF-1α and suppression of ROS diminished these effects. ERK1/2 and Akt activation mediated the effect of ROS on NF-κB and HIF-1α and their pharmacological inhibition suppressed GEM-induced PTX3. Our study findings reinforced the role regarding PTX3 signaling in GEM-induced resistance and pointed toward an unintended and undesired effect of chemotherapy and to get an active regimen; the synergy was associated with NF-κB downregulation in lung cancer.
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