World J Clin Pediatr 2018 Oct 25;7(4):89-104. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
2 Department of Pediatrics, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Emergency Hospital for Children, Cluj-Napoca 400177, Romania.
Perianal infectious dermatitis (PID) represents a superficial inflammation of the perianal skin, which is of bacterial origin (classically, ). This narrative review aims to critically review and summarize the available scientific literature regarding pediatric PID, being the first of its kind, to the best of the author's knowledge. It also reports the first cases of Romanian children with PID. Multiple databases were subjected to systematic literature search (from 1966 to April 30, 2018) to identify studies and case reports of children with PID. As such, this review provides updated information about essential aspects of PID (epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, as well as clinical features, required investigations and therapeutic options) and of diagnostic pitfalls. Although a well-defined entity, PID remains largely underdiagnosed. PID may mimic other common conditions with skin manifestations (like candidiasis, pinworms, eczema, irritant dermatitis, anal fissure, hemorrhoids, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, zinc deficiency dermatosis and even sexual abuse), with consequent unnecessary, sometimes expensive and invasive investigations and futile therapies, which cause patients and families discomfort and distress. Since PID has an unremitting course, early recognition is imperative, as it allows for prompt and efficacious antibiotic therapy. However, PID represents a stubborn condition and, even if properly treated, its recurrence rate remains high. Further well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials, with adequate follow-up, are required in order to formulate the optimum personalized antibiotic therapy (oral alone or in association with topical medication), able to prevent recurrences. Awareness of this condition by healthcare professionals should improve patient outcomes.