Transplant Proc 2018 Dec 29;50(10):4087-4089. Epub 2018 May 29.
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:
Background: Vascular complications represent the most common cause of early graft failure after pancreatic transplantation (PT). Pseudoaneurysms are uncommon vascular complications that usually present within the first year post transplantation.
Case Report: A 49-year-old man with history of type 1 diabetes mellitus presented for evaluation with a 2-day history of painless hematochezia. He had undergone PT 4 years prior to presentation, which failed due to acute cellular rejection after 1 year. Both extended upper endoscopy and colonoscopy did not identify an active bleeding source. After an episode of massive hematochezia, he became hemodynamically unstable with peritoneal signs noted on physical examination. An abdominal angiogram was unable to identify active hemorrhage, and the patient was transferred to the operating room for open laparotomy. Exploration revealed a right common iliac artery pseudoaneurysm eroding into the pancreatic-ileal anastomosis, which required initial digital compression for initial hemostasis. After combined endovascular procedure with ballooning and stenting of the right iliac artery, optimal hemostasis was achieved without further episodes of hematochezia.
Discussion: Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) has been reported to occur in 11% of enteric-drained PT. Even though infectious causes have been reported, culprits are more commonly associated with vascular or enteric surgical anastomosis and usually occur within the early postoperative course. Here we report an uncommon cause of GIB, a late complication of PT, and review important points associated with the management of GIB, anatomy of PT, and potential etiologies for early and late GIB in the setting of PT.