Advancing in genome sequencing has greatly propelled the understanding of the living world; however, it is insufficient for full description of a biological system. Focusing on proteomics has emerged as another large-scale platform for improving the understanding of biology. Proteomic experiments can be used for different aspects of clinical and health sciences such as food technology, biomarker discovery and drug target identification. Since proteins are main constituents of foods, proteomic technology can monitor and characterize protein content of foods and their change during production process. The proteomic biomarker discovery is advanced in various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, AIDS, and renal diseases which provide non-invasive methods by the use of body fluids such as urine and serum. Proteomics is also used in drug target identification using different approaches such as chemical proteomics and protein interaction networks. The development and application of proteomics has increased tremendously over the last decade. Advances in proteomics methods offer many promising new directions of studying in clinical fields. In this regard, we want to discuss proteomics technology application in food investigations, drug, and biomarker discovery.