J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 Mar 13;28(3):789-791. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Neurology, Yokohama Rosai Hospital, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
Background: Although it was suggested that idiopathic thromobocytopenic purpura (ITP) can be a paradoxical cause of cerebral infarction, previous reports indicate that cerebral infarction associated with ITP occurs when thrombocytopenia is already evident at the onset of cerebral infarction.
Case Report: We report a case of multiple cerebral infarction that preceded acute exacerbation of ITP. An 80-year-old woman with a history of ITP presented with tetraplegia, and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple infarction in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. For ITP, she was treated with oral prednisolone and subcutaneous injection of thrombopoietin receptor agonists. Her platelet count was within the normal range at the onset of cerebral infarction. Medical work-up did not reveal the obvious causes of her multiple cerebral infarction. On day 10 of hospitalization, she showed melena and oral hemorrhage and her platelet count markedly decreased. Her platelet-associated IgG level was elevated and a diagnosis of acute exacerbation of ITP was made. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and her platelet count increased moderately. However, her neurological symptoms and cerebral infarction on magnetic resonance imaging deteriorated accompanied by hemorrhagic transformation. Finally, she died of respiratory failure.
Conclusions: Our case suggests that thrombophilia accompanied by ITP can precede actual exacerbation of ITP and we have to consider ITP as a possible cause of multiple cerebral infarction, even when the platelet count is within the normal range at the onset of cerebral infarction.
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