Purpose: The effects and complications of hybrid procedure (combined carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting) to revascularize chronic long-segment occlusion of internal carotid artery (ICA) are currently unknown and the purpose of this study.
Methods: Sixty-five patients with long-segment occlusion of ICA were prospectively enrolled and divided into two groups of revascularization with hybrid operation (n = 30) and medication group (n = 35), and clinical and angiographic data were analyzed.
Results: The duration from symptom onset to revascularization ranged 17-120 days (mean 40.5 ± 5.0) in the hybrid operation, with a success revascularization rate of 100%. All patients had thrombi extracted with the clot length ranging 5-8 cm (mean 6.3 ± 0.9). The thrombolysis in cerebral infarction grade (TICI) was significantly (P < 0.0001) greater immediately after (median 2,) than before recanalization (0). Periprocedural complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in one patient and intracranial hemorrhage in another (6.7%), but no severe neurological deficits occurred. The symptoms were significantly (P < 0.0001) improved after compared with before operation, with the modified Rankin score of 2.5 ± 0.6 at 3 months postoperation which was significantly (P < 0.0001) improved compared with before revascularization (3.4 ± 0.6). Follow-up angiography revealed patent ICA in all patients with hybrid operation. In the medication alone group, no significant (P > 0.05) improvement was observed with the mRS score of 3.5 ± 0.8 at admission and 3.4 ± 0.7 at 3 months, which was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than in the hybrid operation.
Conclusion: Hybrid operation may be safe and effective in revascularizing long-segment occlusion of internal carotid artery for prevention of further ischemic events.
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