Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2019 Mar 10;1867(3):163-174. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021, India. Electronic address:
Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) play crucial roles in the biosynthesis of fatty acids, non-ribosomal polypeptides and polyketides. The three-dimensional NMR structure of Leishmania major holo-LmACP, belonging to the type II pathway, has been reported previously, but the structure of its apo-form and its conformational differences with the holo-form remain to be explored. Here we report the crystal structures of apo-LmACP (wild-type and S37A mutant) at 2.0 Å resolution and compare their key features with the structures of holo-LmACP (wild-type) and other type II ACPs from Escherichia coli and Plasmodium falciparum. The crystal structure of apo-LmACP, which is homologous to other type II ACPs, displays some key structural rearrangements as compared to its holo-structure. Contrary to holo-form, which exists predominantly as a monomer, the apo-form exists as a mixture of monomeric and dimeric population in solution. In contrast to the closed structure of apo-LmACP, holo-LmACP structure was observed in an open conformation as a result of reorganization of specific helices and loops. We propose that the structural changes exhibited by LmACP occur due to the attachment of the phosphopantetheine arm and may be a prerequisite for the initiation of fatty acid synthesis. The movement of helix 3 may also play a role in the dissociation of holo-LmACP from its cognate enzymes of the FAS II pathway.