Eur J Pharmacol 2019 Jan 8;843:307-315. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Centre of Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland; LinkoCare Life Sciences AB, Sweden; Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, UPR4301 CNRS CS80054, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans cedex 2, France.
The latest findings indicate the huge therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine, including the healing of chronic wounds. Main stem cell types involved in wound healing process are: epidermal and dermal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In the therapy of chronic wounds, they can be administrated either topically or using different matrix like hydrogels, scaffolds, dermal substitutes and extracellular matrix (ECM) derivatives. Stem cells are proven to positively influence wound healing by different direct and indirect mechanisms including residing cells stimulation, biomolecules release, inflammation control and ECM remodelling. MSCs are especially worth mentioning as they can be easily derived from bone-marrow or adipose tissue. Apart from traditional approach of administering living stem cells to wounds, new trends have emerged in recent years. Good healing results are obtained using stem cell secretome alone, for example exosomes or conditioned media. There are also attempts to improve healing potential of stem cells by their co-culture with other cell types as well as by their genetic modifications or pretreatment using different chemicals or cell media. Moreover, stem cells have been tested for novel therapeutic purposes like for example acute burns and have been used in experiments on large animal models including pigs and sheep. In this review we discuss the role of stem cells in skin wound healing acceleration. In addition, we analyse possible new strategies of stem cells application in treatment of chronic wounds.