Eur Radiol 2019 May 3;29(5):2426-2435. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Imaging, University Hospital of Caen, Avenue de la Côte de Nacre, 14033, Caen Cedex, France.
Purpose: This study was conducted in order to investigate the safety and accuracy of percutaneous transluminal forceps biopsy (PTFB) during percutaneous biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with a suspicion of malignant biliary stricture.
Material And Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with obstructive jaundice underwent PTFB during PTBD. Biopsy specimens were obtained using 5.2-F flexible biopsy forceps and these specimens were independently analysed by two pathologists. Consensus was obtained in case of discrepancy. Biopsy was considered as a true positive when tumour cells were retrieved. In the absence of tumour cells, comparison with available surgical findings and/or endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and/or percutaneous liver biopsy and/or imaging or clinical follow-up was made to distinguish true and false negatives. Specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated. Influence of tumour location and pre-operative imaging findings was evaluated. Adverse events were reported.
Results: Biliary drainage and tissue sampling were achieved in 100% of patients. Sensitivity and specificity were 70 and 100%, respectively, while overall accuracy was 72%. After excluding the first 25 patients, accuracy and sensitivity for tissue sampling reached 80 and 78%, respectively. Sensitivity was better (87%) if stenosis was located at the upper part of the biliary tree, compared to the lower part (55%). In case of cholangiocarcinoma or intraductal invasion suspected on imaging, biopsy was contributive in 84 and 81% of patients, respectively. Four complications occurred consisting of one bile leak, two haemobilia and one pneumoperitoneum.
Conclusion: PTFB combined with PTBD is a safe and effective technique for both histopathological diagnosis and biliary decompression of biliary strictures.
Key Points: Implications for patient care: • Percutaneous transbiliary forceps biopsy is technically feasible (100% of tissue sampling in our study) and is a safe technique. • Radiological management combining PTFB plus PTBD may allow diagnosis and treatment of the biliary stricture at the same time. • Sensitivity and accuracy for PTFB reached 78 and 80%, respectively, with a 100% specificity.
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