The mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has a key role in the regulation of a variety of biological processes pivotal for cellular life, aging, and death. Impaired activity of mTOR complexes (mTORC1/mTORC2), particularly mTORC1 overactivation, has been implicated in a plethora of age-related disorders, including human renal diseases. Since the discovery of rapamycin (or sirolimus), more than four decades ago, advances in our understanding of how mTOR participates in renal physiological and pathological mechanisms have grown exponentially, due to both preclinical studies in animal models with genetic modification of some mTOR components as well as due to evidence coming from the clinical experience. The main clinical indication of rapamycin is as immunosuppressive therapy for the prevention of allograft rejection, namely, in renal transplantation. However, considering the central participation of mTOR in the pathogenesis of other renal disorders, the use of rapamycin and its analogs meanwhile developed (rapalogues) everolimus and temsirolimus has been viewed as a promising pharmacological strategy. This article critically reviews the use of mTOR inhibitors in renal diseases. Firstly, we briefly overview the mTOR components and signaling as well as the pharmacological armamentarium targeting the mTOR pathway currently available or in the research and development stages. Thereafter, we revisit the mTOR pathway in renal physiology to conclude with the advances, drawbacks, and challenges regarding the use of mTOR inhibitors, in a translational perspective, in four classes of renal diseases: kidney transplantation, polycystic kidney diseases, renal carcinomas, and diabetic nephropathy.