Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Wnt-signaling is one of the most abundant pathways involved in processes such as cell-proliferation, -polarity, and -differentiation. Altered Wnt-signaling has been linked with several neurodevelopmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as with cognitive functions, learning and memory. Particularly, lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) or LRP6 coreceptors, responsible in the activation of the canonical Wnt-pathway, were associated with cognitive alterations in psychiatric disorders. Following the hypothesis of Wnt involvement in ADHD, we investigated the association of genetic variations in LRP5 and LRP6 genes with three independent child and adolescent ADHD (cADHD) samples (total 2,917 participants), followed by a meta-analysis including previously published data. As ADHD is more prevalent in males, we stratified the analysis according to sex and compared the results with the recent ADHD Psychiatric Genomic Consortium (PGC) GWAS. Meta-analyzing our data including previously published cADHD studies, association of LRP5 intronic rs4988319 and rs3736228 (Ala1330Val) with cADHD was observed among girls (OR = 1.80 with 95% CI = 1.07-3.02, p = .0259; and OR = 2.08 with 95% CI = 1.01-4.46, p = .0026, respectively), whereas in boys association between LRP6 rs2302685 (Val1062Ile) and cADHD was present (OR = 1.66, CI = 1.20-2.31, p = .0024). In the PGC-ADHD dataset (using pooled data of cADHD and adults) tendency of associations were observed only among females with OR = 1.09 (1.02-1.17) for LRP5 rs3736228 and OR = 1.18 (1.09-1.25) for LRP6 rs2302685. Together, our findings suggest a potential sex-specific link of cADHD with LRP5 and LRP6 gene variants, which could contribute to the differences in brain maturation alterations in ADHD affected boys and girls, and suggest possible therapy targets.