Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Patologia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Mucosal lesions of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) are frequently described and clinically important. Macrophages are classified as M1 or M2. M1 are proinflammatory and M2 are related to chronicity. Dectin-1 recognizes β-glucan and plays an important role against fungal cells. The objective was to verify the presence of M1, M2, and dectin-1 and a possible correlation with Th1/Th2 cytokines in mucosal PCM lesions. In sum, 33 biopsies of oral PCM were submitted to histological and immunohistochemistry analysis, and positive cells were quantified. Eleven biopsies were characterized by compact granulomas (G1), 12 with loose granulomas (G2), and 10 with both kind of granulomas (G3). pSTAT-1 was equally increased in the three groups. G1 was characterized by an increased number of CD163+ macrophages. G2 presented similar number of arginase 1, iNOS, and CD163 expressing cells. G3 presented an increased number of cells expressing arginase 1 and CD163 over iNOS. G1 and G3 presented high number of cells expressing interferon (IFN)-γ; interleukin (IL) 5 was increased in G2 and G3; the expression of IL10 was similar among the three groups, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was higher in G3. G1 correlates to Th1 cytokines and pSTAT-1 and G2 correlates to Th2 cytokines. G3 presents both kinds of cytokines. We could not associate the expression of arginase-1, CD163, iNOS, and dectin-1 with the pattern of cytokines or kind of granuloma.
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