Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2019 02 8;1862(2):198-208. Epub 2018 Nov 8.
Department of General Biophysics, Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland. Electronic address:
Differentiation of human macrophages predisposes these cells to numerous tasks, i.e. killing invading pathogens, and this entails the need for enhanced intracellular defences against stress, including conditions that may increase DNA damage. Our study shows that expression of DNA repair enzymes, such as PARP1, BRCA1 and XRCC1, are activated during macrophage development by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which serves as a histone acetylation sensor. It recognises and displaces epigenetically marked nucleosomes, thereby enabling transcription. Acetylation is controlled both in monocytes and macrophages by the co-operation of EP300 and HDAC1 activities. Differentiation modulates the activities of individual components of EP300-HDAC1-SWI/SNF functional unit and entails recruitment of PBAF to gene promoters. In monocytes, histone-deacetylated promoters of repressed PARP1, BRCA1 and XRCC1 respond only to HDAC inhibition, with an opening of the chromatin structure by BRM, whereas in macrophages both EP300 and HDAC1 contribute to the fine-tuning of nucleosomal acetylation, with HDAC1 remaining active and the balance of EP300 and HDAC1 activities controlling nucleosome eviction by BRG1-containing SWI/SNF. Since EP300-HDAC1-SWI/SNF operates at the level of gene promoters characterized simultaneously by the presence of E2F binding site(s) and CpG island(s), this allows cells to adjust PARP1, BRCA1 and XRCC1 transcription to the differentiation mode and to restart cell cycle progression. Thus, mutual interdependence between acetylase and deacetylase activities defines the acetylation-dependent code for regulation of histone density and gene transcription by SWI/SNF, notably on gene promoters of DNA repair enzymes.