Z Rheumatol 2018 Dec;77(10):907-922
Abt. für Rheumatologie, Immunologie und Rehabilitation, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Schweiz.
Eosinophilic granulocytes form peripheral effector cells controlled by Th2 lymphocytes, which cause local cell, tissue, and functional disorders of infiltrated organs via the release of cytotoxic basic proteins and oxygen radicals. Diseases associated with eosinophilia include systemic and organ-related forms. The lungs are involved in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome), acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, as well as in an organ manifestation in hypereosinophilic syndrome and certain parasitic diseases. In particular, the lungs are frequently affected in vasculitis of small vessels, including EGPA, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Among these, EGPA is the most frequent pulmonary eosinophil vasculitis representative. In addition, there are various overlap syndromes in which characteristic features of EGPA can be detected in the context of other anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-)associated vasculitides. Occasionally, non-ANCA-associated pulmonary vasculitides occur with eosinophilia (e.g., Schönlein-Henoch purpura, Kawasaki disease, drug-induced hypersensitivity, and paraneoplastic syndrome). Herein, the pulmonary vasculitides accompanying eosinophilia are presented with respect to both the lung manifestations and pulmonary eosinophilia.